4.14: Definition of Competitiveness

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Definition of Individualism
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Definition of Structure

 

Competitiveness/ Masculinity vs. Femininity

The competitiveness variable shows how much achievement and success dominate over caring for others ant the quality of life.

1. Definition

Competitive (Masculinity)
Competitiveness characterizes cultures in which achievement, assertiveness and competition are reinforced. Social and gender roles tend to be distinct. Men are expected to be assertive, tough and driven by material success. Women, on the other hand, are expected to be modest, nurturing and concerned mainly with the quality of life. In many western industrialized societies this distinction between the sex roles is getting less. When competitiveness is valued, the culture is predominantly materialistic, with an emphasis on assertiveness and acquisition of money, property, goods, etc. High value is placed on ambition, decisiveness, performance, speed, and size. One lives to work.

Cooperative (Femininity)
Cooperativeness characterizes cultures in which social and gender roles overlap. Everyone is expected to demonstrate modesty, nurturing and a concern for the quality of life. Being sympathetic to one’s fellow human beings is important with an emphasis on relationships. High value is placed on consensus and intuition. One works to live.

2. Implications

Competitive
– Money acts as a primary motivator.
– High concern with achievement and performance.

Cooperative
– Money is less of a motivator.
– High concern with job satisfaction.

Activity
Where would you position your culture on this spectrum? Do you know where to position other cultures? How could you find out where other cultures are positioned? (Keep in mind that these determinations are generalizations, there are significant variations within cultures based on subcultures, countercultures and divergent individual preferences.)

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Definition of Individualism
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Definition of Structure